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An Overview of Scroll Technologies

Css Tricks - Mon, 06/22/2020 - 11:52am

Scroll-related animations have been used on the web for years. In recent years, they’ve started to become more common, perhaps in part due to devices being higher-performing and thus able to handle more animation. 

There are a number of scroll related technologies out there, so this article’s aim is to provide an overview of them and tools to help choose the one that’s right for you. I’d argue that these technologies can be broken down into two broad categories: ones for specific scroll-related behaviors and ones for more generic scroll-related behaviors.

Technologies for specific scroll-related behaviors

There are a few simple native CSS scroll effects that are supported by modern browsers. In some limited use cases they can be sufficient for your scroll animation needs.

position: sticky;

If all you need is for an element to stay in the same place on scroll for a portion of the page, using position: sticky is a good option. It’s straightforward and built into modern browsers. That said, a polyfill is required for IE support and some mobile browsers. For a solid overview, check out this article by Preethi.

CodePen Embed Fallback CSS parallax

This isn’t a technology as much as a technique, but it’s pretty handy for simple parallax effects where you want different pieces of the page to move at different speeds on scroll. There’s a good write up of the technique on and a bunch of examples on CodePen, like this Firewatch header. The biggest downside for me is that it’s difficult to understand what values to use to set the perspective and transforms in order to get the parallax effect exactly right.

CodePen Embed Fallback CSS scroll snap points

Scroll snap points allow the browser to snap to particular scroll positions that you set after a user is done with their normal scrolling. This can be helpful for keeping certain elements in view. However, the API is still in flux so be careful to use the most up to date API and be careful about relying on it in production. This CSS-Tricks article by Max Kohler is a good place to learn about it right now.

CodePen Embed Fallback Smooth scrolling

Smooth scrolling is supported natively when jumping from section to section within a page using window.scrollTo() in JavaScript or even the scroll-behavior property in CSS. Generic smooth scrolling that smooths out mouse wheel actions is not supported natively in all browsers at this time. There are various JavaScript libraries that attempt to add smooth scroll support for the mousewheel action, but I’ve yet to find one that is bug-free and plays nicely with all other scroll technologies. Plus, smooth scrolling isn’t always good in the first place.

Technologies for generic scroll behaviors

Currently, there is no way to create or fire generic animations based on the scroll position using just CSS (though there is a proposal that could support some form of generic scroll based animations in CSS in the distant future) or to scrub through part of an animation. As such, if you want to animate elements on scroll, you’ll need to use at least some JavaScript to create the effect you want. There are two broad methods of using JavaScript to fire animations on scroll: using intersection observers and using the scroll event.


Intersection observers are great if all you need for your animation is information related to whether or not and how much of an element is visible in the viewport. This makes them a good option for reveal animations. Even then, some things are difficult (though not impossible) using intersection observers, such as firing different animations depending on the direction an element enters the viewport. Intersection observers also aren’t very helpful if you want to do any scroll animations when an element is in between and not overlapping with the start and end points. 

Using the scroll event

Using the scroll event will give you the most freedom in controlling animations on scroll. It allows you to affect an element on scroll no matter where it is in terms of the viewport and set up starting and ending points exactly as you need for your project. 

With that being said, it can also be intense on performance if it isn’t throttled correctly and doesn’t have a convenient API to create particular behaviors. This is why it’s oftentimes helpful to use a good scrolling library that can handle the throttling for you and give you a more handy API to work with. Some can even handle a lot of the resizing issues for you!

Tools to create generic scroll behaviors

There are a few holistic scrolling libraries that attempt to give you full control over animations on scroll without you having to perform all of the calculations yourself. 


ScrollMagic provides a relatively simple API to create various effects on scroll and can be hooked into different animation libraries like GSAP and Velocity.js. However, it has become less maintained over the past few years, which lead to the creation of ScrollScene.


ScrollScene is essentially a wrapper to try and make ScrollMagic and/or the intersection observer more usable. It uses a custom, more maintained version of ScrollMagic and adds additional features like video playback, scene init breakpoints, and scene duration breakpoints. It also makes use of GSAP


ScrollTrigger is an official GreenSock plugin for GSAP. It has a long list of features and has the most easy to use API of any scroll library (at least to me). Using it, you can have complete control to define where your scroll animations start and end, animate anything (WebGL, canvas, SVG, DOM, whatever) on scroll, pin elements in place while the animation is running, and more. Plus it has the support of GreenSock and the GreenSock forums

Notable mention: Locomotive Scroll

While it doesn’t attempt to be as comprehensive of a scrolling library as the other libraries mentioned above, Locomotive Scroll is focused on providing custom smooth scrolling. You can also animate certain properties of DOM objects by adding data attributes or hook into the onscroll event to animate other types of objects. 

In summary

For some particular scroll animation effects, like sticky positioning and parallax, CSS technologies may be sufficient, at least when using a polyfill for browsers that don’t support those properties.

I generally recommend using GSAP’s ScrollTrigger because it can do everything that CSS properties can do, plus much more. ScrollTrigger will handle the browser support and calculations so that you can focus on animating!

Here’s a table covering which tools you can use to create particular effects:

ScrollTriggerLocomotive ScrollScrollSceneScrollMagicIntersection observersSmooth ScrollingCSS scroll snap pointsCSS parallaxposition: stickyPinning✅⚪️✅✅❌❌❌❌✅Parallax effects✅✅✅✅❌❌❌✅❌Scrubbing through animation with easing✅⚪️⚪️⚪️⚪️❌❌⚪️❌Snaps scroll position✅⚪️⚪️⚪️⚪️❌✅❌❌Dynamic Batching / Staggering✅❌✅❌✅❌❌❌❌Supports horizontal scroll effects✅✅✅✅✅✅✅✅✅

Here’s a table comparing various other aspects of scroll technology:

ScrollTriggerLocomotive ScrollScrollSceneScrollMagicIntersection observersSmooth scrollingCSS scroll snap pointsCSS parallaxposition: stickyUsable in production (good browser support)✅⚪️✅✅⚪️⚪️⚪️✅⚪️Complete freedom in animation✅⚪️✅✅❌❌❌❌❌Maintained✅✅✅❌n/an/an/an/an/aWorks with DOM, Canvas, WebGl, SVG✅⚪️✅✅✅❌❌❌❌Works easily with resizing✅✅✅⚪️✅✅✅✅✅Restricts animation to relevant section✅❌⚪️⚪️✅✅✅❌✅Directionally aware✅⚪️✅✅⚪️❌❌❌❌Native technology❌❌❌❌✅✅✅✅✅✅ = Yes
⚪️ = Partial support
❌ = No

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Rough Notation

Css Tricks - Mon, 06/22/2020 - 11:51am

This is a neat little library. It uses SVG to insert hand-drawn looking annotations to elements (probably text), like underlines and box highlights (there are 6 design options, all configurable). Super clever.

Here’s a little demo:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Aside from it just being cool, I really like how it was released. You can use it from npm. It’s ready to be used via ES6 imports. You can just use it as a <script src>. Then, if you happen to be using a JavaScript framework, there are wrappers for React, Vue, Svelte, Angular, and Web Components. Nice.

Not all projects take that approach. Here’s another very cool project: gooey-react. It takes the gooey effect concept and essentially gives it an API via React/JSX.

Again, this is very cool and clever and I love it — but imagine another approach instead, perhaps an HTML wrapper with data-* attributes to control the effect. With that, wrappers could be (easily?) made in any JavaScript framework.

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Using Custom Property “Stacks” to Tame the Cascade

Css Tricks - Mon, 06/22/2020 - 4:47am

Since the inception of CSS in 1994, the cascade and inheritance have defined how we design on the web. Both are powerful features but, as authors, we’ve had very little control over how they interact. Selector specificity and source order provide some minimal “layering” control, without a lot of nuance — and inheritance requires an unbroken lineage. Now, CSS Custom Properties allow us to manage and control both cascade and inheritance in new ways.

I want to show you how I’ve used Custom Property “stacks” to solve some of the common issues people face in the cascade: from scoped component styles, to more explicit layering of intents.

A quick intro to Custom Properties

The same way browsers have defined new properties using a vendor prefix like -webkit- or -moz-, we can define our own Custom Properties with an “empty” -- prefix. Like variables in Sass or JavaScript, we can use them to name, store, and retrieve values — but like other properties in CSS, they cascade and inherit with the DOM.

/* Define a custom property */ html { --brand-color: rebeccapurple; }

In order to access those captured values, we use the var() function. It has two parts: first the name of our custom property, and then a fallback in case that property is undefined:

button { /* use the --brand-color if available, or fall back to deeppink */ background: var(--brand-color, deeppink); }

This is not a support fallback for old browsers. If a browser doesn’t understand custom properties, it will ignore the entire var() declaration. Instead, this is a built-in way of handling undefined variables, similar to a font stack defining fallback font families when one is unavailable. If we don’t provide a fallback, the default is unset.

Building variable “stacks”

This ability to define a fallback is similar to “font stacks” used on the font-family property. If the first family is unavailable, the second will be used, and so on. The var() function only accepts a single fallback, but we can nest var() functions to create custom-property fallback “stacks” of any size:

button { /* try Consolas, then Menlo, then Monaco, and finally monospace */ font-family: Consolas, Menlo, Monaco, monospace; /* try --state, then --button-color, then --brand-color, and finally deeppink */ background: var(--state, var(--button-color, var(--brand-color, deeppink))); }

If that nested syntax for stacked properties looks bulky, you can use a pre-processor like Sass to make it more compact.

CodePen Embed Fallback

That single-fallback limitation is required to support fallbacks with a comma inside them — like font stacks or layered background images:

html { /* The fallback value is "Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif" */ font-family: var(--my-font, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif); } Defining “scope”

CSS selectors allow us to drill down into the HTML DOM tree, and style elements anywhere on the page, or elements in a particular nested context.

/* all links */ a { color: slateblue; } /* only links inside a section */ section a { color: rebeccapurple; } /* only links inside an article */ article a { color: deeppink; }

That’s useful, but it doesn’t capture the reality of “modular” object-oriented or component-driven styles. We might have multiple articles and asides, nested in various configurations. We need a way to clarify which context, or scope, should take precedence when they overlap.

Proximity scopes

Let’s say we have a .light theme and a .dark theme. We can use those classes on the root <html> element to define a page-wide default, but we can also apply them to specific components, nested in various ways:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Each time we apply one of our color-mode classes, the background and color properties are reset, then inherited by nested headings and paragraphs. In our main context, colors inherit from the .light class, while the nested heading and paragraph inherit from the .dark class. Inheritance is based on direct lineage, so the nearest ancestor with a defined value will take precedence. We call that proximity.

Proximity matters for inheritance, but it has no impact on selectors, which rely on specificity. That becomes a problem if we want to style something inside the dark or light containers.

Here I’ve attempted to define both light and dark button variants. Light mode buttons should be rebeccapurple with white text so they stand out, and dark mode buttons should be plum with black text. We’re selecting the buttons directly based on a light and dark context, but it doesn’t work:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Some of the buttons are in both contexts, with both .light and .dark ancestors. What we want in that case is for the closest theme to take over (inheritance proximity behavior), but what we get instead is the second selector overriding the first (cascade behavior). Since the two selectors have the same specificity, source order determines the winner.

Custom Properties and proximity

What we need here is a way to inherit these properties from the theme, but only apply them to specific children. Custom Properties make that possible! We can define values on the light and dark containers, while only using their inherited values on nested elements, like our buttons.

We’ll start by setting up the buttons to use custom properties, with a fallback “default” value, in case those properties are undefined:

button { background: var(--btn-color, rebeccapurple); color: var(--btn-contrast, white); }

Now we can set those values based on context, and they will scope to the appropriate ancestor based on proximity and inheritance:

.dark { --btn-color: plum; --btn-contrast: black; } .light { --btn-color: rebeccapurple; --btn-contrast: white; }

As an added bonus, we’re using less code overall, and one unified button definition:

CodePen Embed Fallback

I think of this as creating an API of available parameters for the button component. Sara Soueidan and Lea Verou have both covered this well in recent articles.

Component ownership

Sometimes proximity isn’t enough to define scope. When JavaScript frameworks generate “scoped styles” they are establishing specific object-element ownership. A “tab layout” component owns the tabs themselves, but not the content behind each tab. This is also what the BEM convention attempts to capture in complex .block__element class names.

Nicole Sullivan coined the term “donut scope” to talk about this problem back in 2011. While I’m sure she has more recent thoughts on the issue, the fundamental problem hasn’t changed. Selectors and specificity are great for describing how we build detailed styles over top of broad patterns, but they don’t convey a clear sense of ownership.

We can use custom property stacks to help solve this problem. We’ll start by creating “global” properties on the <html> element that are for our default colors:

html { --background--global: white; --color--global: black; --btn-color--global: rebeccapurple; --btn-contrast--global: white; }

That default global theme is now available anywhere we want to refer to it. We’ll do that with a data-theme attribute that applies our foreground and background colors. We want the global values to provide a default fallback, but we also want the option to override with a specific theme. That’s where “stacks” come in:

[data-theme] { /* If there's no component value, use the global value */ background: var(--background--component, var(--background--global)); color: var(--color--component, var(--color--global)); }

Now we can define an inverted component by setting the *--component properties as a reverse of the global properties:

[data-theme='invert'] { --background--component: var(--color--global); --color--component: var(--background--global); }

But we don’t want those settings to inherit beyond the donut of ownership, so we reset those values to initial (undefined) on every theme. We’ll want to do this at a lower specificity, or earlier in the source order, so it provides a default that each theme can override:

[data-theme] { --background--component: initial; --color--component: initial; }

The initial keyword has a special meaning when used on custom properties, reverting them to a Guaranteed-Invalid state. That means rather than being passed along to set background: initial or color: initial, the custom property becomes undefined, and we fallback to the next value in our stack, the global settings.

We can do the same thing with our buttons, and then make sure to apply data-theme to each component. If no specific theme is given, each component will default to the global theme:

CodePen Embed Fallback Defining “origins”

The CSS cascade is a series of filtering layers used to determine what value should take precedence when multiple values are defined on the same property. We most often interact with the specificity layers, or the final layering based on source-order — but the first layer of cascade is the “origin” of a style. The origin describes where a style came from — often the browser (defaults), the user (preferences), or the author (that’s us).

By default, author styles override user preferences, which override browser defaults. That changes when anyone applies `!important` to a style, and the origins reverse: browser `!important` styles have the highest origin, then important user preferences, then our author important styles, above all the normal layers. There are a few additional origins, but we won’t go into them here.

When we create custom property “stacks,” we’re building a very similar behavior. If we wanted to represent existing origins as a stack of custom properties, it would look something like this:

.origins-as-custom-properties { color: var(--browser-important, var(--user-important, var(--author-important, var(--author, var(--user, var(--browser)))))); }

Those layers already exist, so there’s no reason to recreate them. But we’re doing something very similar when we layer our “global” and “component” styles above — creating a “component” origin layer that overrides our “global” layer. That same approach can be used to solve various layering issues in CSS, which can’t always be described by specificity:

  • Override » Component » Theme » Default
  • Theme » Design system or framework
  • State » Type » Default

Let’s look at some buttons again. We’ll need a default button style, a disabled state, and various button “types,” like danger, primary and secondary. We wan’t the disabled state to always override the type variations, but selectors don’t capture that distinction:

CodePen Embed Fallback

But we can define a stack that provides both “type” and “state” layers in the order that we want them prioritized:

button { background: var(--btn-state, var(--btn-type, var(--btn-default))); }

Now when we set both variables, the state will always take precedence:

CodePen Embed Fallback

I’ve used this technique to create a Cascading Colors framework that allows custom theming based on layering:

  • Pre-defined theme attributes in the HTML
  • User color preferences
  • Light and dark modes
  • Global theme defaults
Mix and match

These approaches can be taken to an extreme, but most day-to-day use-cases can be handled with two or three values in a stack, often using a combination of the techniques above:

  • A variable stack to define the layers
  • Inheritance to set them based on proximity and scope
  • Careful application of the `initial` value to remove nested elements from a scope

We’ve been using these custom property “stacks” on our projects at OddBird. We’re still discovering as we go, but they’ve already been helpful in solving problems that were difficult using only selectors and specificity. With custom properties, we don’t have to fight the cascade or inheritance. We can capture and leverage them, as-intended, with more control over how they should apply in each instance. To me, that’s a big win for CSS — especially when developing style frameworks, tools, and systems.

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Css Tricks - Sat, 06/20/2020 - 3:50am

I remember searching for tutorials for making seamless patterns in Photoshop¹ all the time back in the day.

It’s fun to see this little website for building repeating patterns as its one job. It does everything you’d expect: pick a background, drag some decorations onto it and position them (overlapping an edge is fine, which is the hard part, and makes the designs look less griddy), color them, and away you go.

  1. The trick is to make a square with a design in it, then Filter > Other > Offset of half the width/height to make the seamless repeating edges work, then add a bit more in gaps.

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Just another +1 for subgrid

Css Tricks - Fri, 06/19/2020 - 4:30am

I’d say 85% of my grid usage is in one of these two categories…

  1. I just need some pretty basic (probably equal width) columns that ends up being something like like grid-template-columns: repeat(3, minmax(0, 1fr)); to be safe.
  2. Actually doing some real layout where five minutes in I realize I’d really like subgrid.

Subgrid? It’s a nice intuitive way to have a child element on the grid inherit relevant grid lines from the parent grid.

Here’s a great recent video from Rachel Andrew covering it. Last year, we linked up her talk on the same! It’s such a clutch feature and I wish we could rely on it cross-browser. Right now, Firefox is the only one that has it. (Chrome issue, Safari issue)

In my recent video, right about at 20 minutes, I realize subgrid would make even a fairly simple layout much nicer, like removing the need for variables or resorting to magic numbers.

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Where Do You Learn HTML & CSS in 2020?

Css Tricks - Fri, 06/19/2020 - 3:10am

The question of how and where to learn HTML & CSS is a highly reasonable thing to ask. The answer depends on all sorts of things: how serious you are, your current foundation, what other resources are available to you, what you hope to do with what you learn, and how much time you have, among probably a zillion other things.

Let’s look at a bunch of options and you can choose the ones that feel right to you.

You could read a book.

There are a ton of books out there that cover HTML and CSS (and often together). They probably all do a fine job. There’s no need to chronicle all the choices here. These two are my personal recommendations. You probably don’t even need both.

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

Jon Duckett’s is incredibly well-designed and approachable:

Learning Web Design: A Beginner’s Guide to HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and Web Graphics

Jennifer Robbins’ covers a bit more ground and is designed to be useful for either personal reading or as a classroom textbook.

You could go through a free online course or guide. Frontend Masters

Frontend Masters has a very in-depth bootcamp they give away for free. It’s 21 hours of high-quality video learning! If it clicks with you, you can sign up for the more advanced paid courses.


freeCodeCamp is also (wait for it) free and has a step-by-step process to it where you don’t just watch, there are tasks for you to complete.

Khan Academy

Khan Academy has an Intro to HTML/CSS: Making webpages course that’s packaged in a super cool format. It’s like video in that you get to hear the instructor talk you through the learning, but what you see is a real live text editor and real-live output. Sometimes the teacher is controlling the code, and then sometimes it breaks for challenges in which you take over and edit the code yourself.

Don’t Fear the Internet

Jessica Hische and Russ Maschmeyer’s Don’t Fear the Internet is an eight-part series that gets you going with HTML & CSS — it even delves into the all-important topic of typography.

Through short tutorial videos, you’ll learn how to take a basic WordPress blog and manipulate the CSS, HTML (and even some PHP!) to match your aesthetic. 

Interneting is hard

Oliver James has a wonderful online course called Internetting is Hard (But it doesn’t have to be).

We designed HTML & CSS Is Hard to be the only introduction to HTML and CSS that you’ll ever need. If you put in the effort to read every section and write every code snippet, this tutorial has the potential to replace hundreds or even thousand of dollars worth of online courses and live training.

Scrimba / Intro to HTML

Eric Tirado has an Intro to HTML course on Scrimba, which is also a neat platform in that Eric’s voice guides you through the course, but visually it’s a combination of slides with a real code editor and preview.

You could read through all the posts in our Beginner’s Guide.

We have a guide (a collection of articles, videos, and links) called Just Starting Out with CSS & HTML. I hope there is stuff in there that can help kickstart or augment your early learning because that’s the intent.

You could find and take a paid online course.

I often join gyms because the accountability of paying for something gets me to do it. I know I can do situps, pushups, and go for a jog for free, but the gym membership makes a thing of it. Well, same could be said about paying for a course on HTML and CSS.

These are broad generalizations, but good places to start:

You could go to an in-person code school or coding bootcamp Photo by ThisisEngineering RAEng on Unsplash

If you wanna put even more skin in the game, you could consider literally going to school. If you don’t have a college degree, that’s an option, although you’ll be looking at a broad education rather than a ticket to leveling up your web design and development skills alone. I’m a fan of that just for the general mind-broadening it involves.

But assuming you’re going to go to a coding-specific school…

There are probably dozens — if not hundreds — more, so this is more to inform you of the possibility of schooling. You don’t even have to go to a physical school since plenty of these offer online courses, too (but with the advantage of live instruction and cohorts). For example, LambdaSchool has the novelty of being free to start and paid later in the form of letting them take a portion of your salary after you get a job in the industry.

You could practice on CodePen.

Not every second of your learning should be strictly following some course laid out by a book, class, or teacher. It wouldn’t even be that way if you tried. You might as well embrace that. If something tickles your muse, go play!

I hope CodePen is a rewarding place to do that, making it both easy and useful, while providing a place to connect with other folks in the field.

You could build a personal site and learn what you need to get it done.

That’s how absolutely countless developers have cut their teeth, including me. I wanted a personal website years ago, and I struggled through getting a self-hosted WordPress site online so I could have full control over everything and bend it to my will. Once you have an actual website online, and you know at least some people are seeing it, it gives you all the motivation in the world to keep going and evolve further.

Equally as common: build a website for your band. Or a friend, friend-of-a-friend, or the business of your mother’s business partner’s sister. When you have a real project (a real website on the live internet) you have that feet-in-the-fire feeling that you’re responsible for something real that real people are going to see and you have to get it done and do a good job. That works tremendously well for some people.

You will actually learn by doing a combination of all this stuff.

People are obsessed with asking musicians if they’re “self-taught”. Like, if they are, their amazingness triples because it means their creative genius was delivered by a lightning bolt at birth. They don’t need anyone else to learn; they merely look at those guitar strings or piano keys and know what to do.

And if they were taught by a teacher, then, well, that’s all out the door. If they are good at all, then it’s because the teacher delivered that to them.

Total nonsense.

People learn anything — music and web development included — inside a hurricane of influences. Let’s stick with music for a second. Learning to play comes in many forms. You learn by listening to music an awful lot. You can do fundamental practice, like finger exercises and going up and down scales. You can learn to transpose chords on a chalkboard. You can watch YouTube all day and night. You can sign up for online courses. You can go to local jams to watch and play along. You can join a band. You can take lessons from someone advertising on Craigslist. You can go to a local music school. You can read books about music.

You get the idea.

You can and will do all of that. With learning web design and development, getting anywhere will involve all sorts of ways. There’s no silver bullet. It takes bashing on it lots of different ways. There’s no requirement to sprinkle money on it, but you do need multiple angles, time, and motivation.

Go forth and build websites, the ol’ ShopTalk mantra!

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Building a hexagonal grid using CSS grid

Css Tricks - Thu, 06/18/2020 - 4:42am

I think of grids as arrangements of rectangles with vertical and horizontal lines running through. And they are, but that doesn’t mean we can’t still do clever things in how we place things on those grids and what we do with the elements afterwards.

In this demo by Jesse Breneman, a grid of hexagons is created by setting up the grid columns with math such that each block can span over three columns and two rows so that the blocks overlap in a way that allows a clip-path to be applied around them. This carves a block into a hexagon that is evenly spaced with the others. Very clever.

And, ha, that’s a hell of a domain name Jesse. Personally, I don’t know anything about blogging about CSS at a super cheesy domain name.

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Advice for Complex CSS Illustrations

Css Tricks - Wed, 06/17/2020 - 9:14am

If you were to ask me what question I hear most about front-end development, I’d say it’s“How do I get better at CSS?”. That question usually comes up after sharing a CSS illustration I have made. It’s something I love to do over on CodePen.

To many, CSS is this mythical beast that can’t be tamed. This tweet from Chris made me chuckle because, although ironic, there’s a lot of truth to it. That said, what if I told you that you were only a few properties and techniques away from creating anything you wanted? The truth is that you are indeed that close.

I’ve been wanting to compose an article like this for some time, but it’s a hard topic to cover because there are so many possibilities and so many techniques that there’s often more than one way to accomplish the same thing. The same is true with CSS illustrations. There’s no right or wrong way to do it. We’re all using the same canvas. There are simply so many different tools to get those pixels on the page.

While there is no “one size fits all” approach to CSS illustration, what I can offer is a set of techniques that might help you on your journey.

CodePen Embed Fallback Time and practice

CSS illustration takes lots of time and practice. The more accurate you want to be and the more complicated the illustration, the longer it’s going to take. The time-consuming part isn’t usually deciding on which properties to use and how, but the tinkering of getting things to look right. Be prepared to get very familiar with the styles inspector in your browser dev tools! I also recommend trying out VisBug if you haven’t.

Two fantastic CSS artists are Ben Evans and Diana Smith. Both have recently talked about time consumption when referring to CSS illustration.

Diana’s PureCSS Gaze took her two long weekends to complete. She talks about some of her techniques here and here. “If you have the time, patience, and drive, it is certainly possible,” she says.

I posted a meme-like picture about a cup and Ben’s response summed things up perfectly:

I was tempted to create this in CSS when I first saw the tweet but then thought my reply would take about a month.

It takes time!

CSS Illustration

— Jhey &#x1f6e0; (@jh3yy) May 10, 2020> Tracing is perfectly acceptable

We often have an idea of what it is that we want to illustrate. This article isn’t about design, after all.; it’s about taking an image and rendering it with the DOM and CSS. I’m pretty sure this technique has been around since the dawn of time. But, it’s one I’ve been sharing the last few months.

  • Find or create an image of what it is you want to illustrate.
  • Pull it into your HTML with an <img> tag.
  • Position it in a way that it will sit underneath your illustration.
  • Reduce the image opacity so that it’s still visible but not too overpowering.
  • Trace it with the DOM.

To my surprise, this technique isn’t common knowledge. But it’s invaluable for creating accurate CSS illustrations.

See this trick in action here:

Here’s a timelapse of creating that CSS @eggheadio &#x1f60e;

Tweaked the shadows with clip-path after &#x1f6e0;️

&#x1f4bb; via @CodePen #webdev #coding #CSS #animation #webdesign #design #creative #100DaysOfCode #HTML #Timelapse

— Jhey &#x1f6e0; (@jh3yy) May 1, 2020

And try it out here:

CodePen Embed Fallback Pay attention to responsiveness

If there are two takeaway techniques to take from this article, let it be the “Tracing” one above and this next one. 

There are some fantastic examples of CSS illustration out there. But the one unfortunate thing about some of them is that they aren’t styled — or even viewable — on small screens. We live in an age where first impressions with tech are important. Consider the example of a keyboard illustrated with CSS. Someone comes across your work, opens it up on their smartphone, and they’re greeted with only half the illustration or a small section of it. They probably missed the coolest parts of the demo!

Here’s my trick: leverage viewport units for your illustrations and create your own scaled unit. 

For sizing and positioning, you either have the option of using a scaled unit or percentage. This is particularly useful when you need to use a box shadow because the property accepts viewport units but not percentages.

Consider the CSS logo I created above. I found the image I wanted to use and popped it in the DOM with an img tag.

<image src='egghead.png'/> img {   height: 50vmin;   left: 50%;   opacity: 0.25;   position: fixed;   top: 50%;   transform: translate(-50%, -50%); }

The height, 50vmin, is the desired size of the CSS illustration. The reduced opacity allows us to “trace” the illustration clearly as we progress.

Then, we create our scaled unit.

/**   * image dimensions are 742 x 769   * width is 742   * height is 769   * my desired size is 50vmin */ :root {   --size: 50;   --unit: calc((var(--size) / 769) * 1vmin); }

With the image dimensions in place, we can create a uniform unit that’s going to scale with our image. We know the height is the largest unit, so we use that as a base to create a fractional unit.

We get something like this:

--unit: 0.06501950585vmin;

That looks awkward but, trust me, it’s fine. We can use this to size our illustration’s container using calc().

.egg {   height: calc(769 * var(--unit));   position: relative;   width: calc(742 * var(--unit));   z-index: 2; }

If we use either percentages or our new --unit custom property to style elements within the container of our CSS illustration, we will get responsive CSS illustrations… and all it took was a few lines of math using CSS variables!

Resize this demo and you’ll see that everything stay in proportion always using 50vmin as the sizing constraint.

CodePen Embed Fallback Measure twice, cut once

Another tip is to measure things. Heck, you van even grab a tape measure if you’re working with a physical object!

CodePen Embed Fallback

This may look a little funky but I measured this scene. It’s the TV combo unit I have in my lounge. Those measurements equate to centimeters. I used those to get a responsive unit based on the actual height of the TV. We can give that number — and all others — a name that makes it easy to remember what it’s for, thanks to custom properties.

:root {   --light-switch: 15;   --light-switch-border: 10;   --light-switch-top: 15;   --light-switch-bottom: 25;   --tv-bezel: 15;   --tv-unit-bezel: 4;   --desired-height: 25vmin;   --one-cm: calc(var(--desired-height) / var(--tv-height));   --tv-width: 158.1;   --tv-height: 89.4;   --unit-height: 42;   --unit-width: 180;   --unit-top: 78.7;   --tv-bottom: 114.3;   --scaled-tv-width: calc(var(--tv-width) * var(--one-cm));   --scaled-tv-height: calc(var(--tv-height) * var(--one-cm));   --scaled-unit-width: calc(var(--unit-width) * var(--one-cm));   --scaled-unit-height: calc(var(--unit-height) * var(--one-cm)); }

As soon as we calculate a variable, we can use it everywhere. I know my TV is 158.1cm wide and 89.4cm tall. I checked the manual. But in my CSS illustration, it will always scale to 25vmin.

Use absolute positioning on all the things

This one will save you a few keystrokes. More often than not, you’ll be looking to absolutely position elements. Save yourself and put this rule somewhere.

/* Your class name may vary */ .css-illustration *, .css-illustration *:after, .css-illustration *:before, .css-illustration:after, .css-illustration:before {   box-sizing: border-box;   position: absolute; }

Your keyboard will thank you!

Positioning is a tricky concept in CSS. You can read up on it in the CSS Almanac for more information on how to use it.

Or, have a play with this little positioning playground:

CodePen Embed Fallback Stick to an approach

This is by far the hardest thing to do. How do you approach a CSS illustration? Where do you even start? Should you start with the outermost part and work your way in? That doesn’t work so well.

Odds are that you’ll try some approaches and find a better way to go about it. You’ll certainly do a little back-and-forth but, the more you practice, the better you’ll get at spotting patterns and developing an approach that works best for you.

I tend to relate my approach to how you’d go about creating a vector image where illustrations are made up of layers. Split it up and sketch it on paper if you need to. But, start from the bottom and work your way up. This tends to mean larger shapes first, and finer details later. You can always tinker with the stacking index when you need to move elements around.

Maintain a solid structure for your styles

That leads us to the structure. Try to avoid a flat DOM structure for your illustration. Keeping things atomic makes it easier to move parts of your illustration. It will also makes it much easier to show and hide parts of the illustration or even animate them later. Consider the CSS Snorlax demo. The arms, feet, head, etc. are separate elements. That made animating the arm a lot easier than if I had tried to keep things together since I could simply apply the animation to the .snorlax__arm-left class.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Here’s a timelapse shot of me creating the demo:

Attempted to put together a timelapse of the CSS Snorlax we built last night &#x1f605;

Amusing watching it back!

&#x1f4bb; via @CodePen#webdev #coding #HTML #CSS #webdesign #100DaysOfCode #creative #design #animation

— Jhey &#x1f6e0; (@jh3yy) April 28, 2020 Handling awkward shapes

There’s a pretty good article right here on CSS-Tricks for creating shapes with CSS. But what about more “awkward” shapes, like a long curve or even an outer curve? In these scenarios, we need to think outside the box. Properties such as overflow, border-radius, and clip-path are big helpers.

Consider this CSS Jigglypuff demo. Toggle the checkbox.

CodePen Embed Fallback

That’s the key for creating curved shapes! We have an element much larger than the body with a border-radius applied. We then apply overflow: hidden to the body to cut that part off.

How might we create an outer curve? This one’s a little tricky. But a trick I like to use is a transparent element with a thick border. Then apply a border-radius and clip the excess, if required.

CodePen Embed Fallback

If you hit the toggle, it reveals the element we are using to go across that corner. Another trick might be to overlay a circle that matches the background color. This is fine until we need to change the background color. It’s OK if you have a variable or something in place for that color. But, it could make things a little harder to maintain.

clip-path is your friend

You might have noticed a couple of interesting CSS properties in that last demo, including clip-path. You’ll most likely need clip-path if you want to create complex CSS shapes. It’s especially handy for cutting off bits of elements when hiding parent box overflow doesn’t do.

Here’s a little demo I built some time ago that showcases different clip-path possibilities.

CodePen Embed Fallback

There’s also this demo that takes ideas from the “Shapes of CSS” article and re-created with clip-path.

CodePen Embed Fallback border-radius is your other friend

You’re going to need border-radius to create curves. One uncommon trick is to use a “double” syntax. This allows you to create a horizontal and vertical radius for each corner.

Play with this demo to really appreciate the power of border-radius. I advocate using percentages across the board in order keep things responsive.

CodePen Embed Fallback Shading techniques

You’ve got all the shapes, everything is nicely laid out, and all the right colors are in place… but something still looks off. Odds are that it’s a lack of shading.

Shading adds depth and create a realistic feel. Consider this ecreation of a Gal Shir illustration. Gal is fantastic at using shades and gradients to make beautiful illustrations. I thought it would be fun to do a recreate it and include a switch that toggles the shading to see just what a difference it makes.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Shading effects are often created with a box-shadow and background-image combination.

The key thing with these properties is that we can stack them in a comma-separated list. For example, the cauldron in the demo has a list of gradients that are being used across the body.

.cauldron {   background:     radial-gradient(25% 25% at 25% 55%, var(--rim-color), transparent),     radial-gradient(100% 100% at -2% 50%, transparent, transparent 92%, var(--cauldron-color)),     radial-gradient(100% 100% at -5% 50%, transparent, transparent 80%, var(--darkness)),     linear-gradient(310deg, var(--inner-rim-color) 25%, transparent), var(--cauldron-color); }

Note that radial-gradient() and a linear-gradient() are being used here and not always with perfectly round numeric values. Again, those numbers are just fine. In fact, you’ll spend a lot of time tweaking and tinkering with things in the style inspector.

It’s generally the same working with box-shadow. However, with that, we can also use the inset value to create tricky borders and additional depth.

.cauldron__opening {   box-shadow:     0 0px calc(var(--size) * 0.05px) calc(var(--size) * 0.005px) var(--rim-color) inset,     0 calc(var(--size) * 0.025px) 0 calc(var(--size) * 0.025px) var(--inner-rim-color) inset,     0 10px 20px 0px var(--darkness), 0 10px 20px -10px var(--inner-rim-color); }

There are certainly times where it will make more sense to go with filter: drop-shadow() instead to get the effect you want.

Lynn Fisher’s is a brilliant example of these properties in action. Have a poke around on that site and inspect some of the illustrations for great ways to use box-shadow and background-image in illustrations.

box-shadow is so powerful that you could create your entire illustration with it. I once joked about creating a CSS illustration of a dollar.

In CSS right? &#x1f605;#webdev #CSS #animation #webdesign #coding #100DaysOfCode #HTML

— Jhey &#x1f6e0; (@jh3yy) April 22, 2020

I used a generator to create the illustration with a single div. But Alvaro Montoro took it a little further and wrote a generator that does it with box-shadow instead.

Preprocessors are super helpful

While they aren’t required, using preprocessors can help keep your code neat and tidy. For example, Pug makes writing HTML faster, especially when it comes to using loops for dealing with a bunch of repeating elements. From there, we can scope CSS custom properties in a way that we only need to define styles once, then overwrite them where needed.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Here’s another example that demonstrates a DRY structure. The flowers are constructed with the same markup, but each has its own index class that is used to apply scoped CSS properties.

CodePen Embed Fallback

The first flower has these properties:

.flower--1 {   --hue: 190;   --x: 0;   --y: 0;   --size: 125;   --r: 0; }

It’s the first one, so all the others are based off it. Notice how the second flower is off to the right and up slightly. All that takes is assigning different values to the same custom properties:

.flower--2 {   --hue: 320;   --x: 140;   --y: -75;   --size: 75;   --r: 40; }

Animated responsive CSS Leif features in the latest CodePen Spark! ✨

For those who don’t know Animal Crossing, Leif is a green-thumbed Sloth who visits your island &#x1f33b;

Here’s a timelapse! &#x1f4f9;

&#x1f4bb; via @CodePen

— Jhey &#x1f6e0; (@jh3yy) May 19, 2020 That’s it!

Go forth, use these tips, come up with your own, share them, and share your CSS masterpieces! And hey, if you have your own advice, please share that too! This is definitely the sort of thing that is learned through lots of trial and error — what works for me may look different from what works for you and we can learn from those different approaches

The post Advice for Complex CSS Illustrations appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Web Engine Diversity and Ecosystem Health

Css Tricks - Tue, 06/16/2020 - 5:46am

As front-end developers, our job is working with browsers. Knowing how many we have and the health of them is always of great interest. As far as numbers go, we have fewer recently than we have in the past. It’s only this month that Edge is starting to auto-update browsers to the Chromium version, yet another notable milestone in the shrinking number of browsers.

A few years back, Rachel Nabors likened the situation to a biological ecosystem and how diversity means health:

If we lose one of those browser engines, we lose its lineage, every permutation of that engine that would follow, and the unique takes on the Web it could allow for.

And it’s not likely to be replaced.

A huge consideration in all this is the open-source nature of what we have left. Remember that Microsoft’s browser technologies were not open-source. Brian Kardell:

In important ways, we are a more diverse, efficient and healthier ecosystem with the three multi-os, open-source engines we have left (Blink, Gecko, and WebKit) than when we had had more and were dominated by projects that weren’t that at all.

As a followup Stuart Langridge touches on another kind of diversity:

What’s really important is diversity of influence: who has the ability to make decisions which shape the web in particular ways, and do they make those decisions for good reasons or not so good?

Here’s hoping that the browsers we have left will continue to evolve, perhaps even fork, and find ways to compete on anything except standards. While the current situation isn’t as bad as perhaps some folks were worried about with the loss of Microsoft’s engines (and maybe it’s even a good thing), it would certainly be bad news if we lost even more browsers [nervously glancing at Firefox], both in shrinking numbers and shrinking diversity of influence.

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What is Developer Experience (DX)?

Css Tricks - Mon, 06/15/2020 - 1:31pm

Developer Experience¹ is a term² with a self-declaring meaning — the experience of developers — but it eludes definition in the sense that people invoke it at different times for different reasons referring to different things. For instance, our own Sarah Drasner’s current job title is “VP of Developer Experience” at Netlify, so it’s a very real thing. But a job title is just one way the term is used. Let’s dig in a bit and apply it to the different ways people think about and use the term.

People think of specific companies.

I hear DX and Stripe together a lot. That makes sense. Stripe is a payment gateway company almost exclusively for developers. They are serious about providing a good experience for their customers (developers), hence “developer experience.” Just listen to Suz Hinton talk about “friction journals”, which is the idea of sitting down to use a product (like Stripe) and noting down every single little WTF moment, confusion, and frustration so that improvements can be made:

Netlify is like Stripe in this way, as is Heroku, CodePen, and any number of companies where the entire customer base is developers. For companies like this, it’s almost like DX is what UX (User Experience) is for any other company.

People think of specific technologies.

It’s common to hear DX invoked when comparing technologies. For instance, some people will say that Vue offers a better developer experience than React. (I’m not trying to start anything, I don’t even have much of an opinion on this.) They are talking about things like APIs. Perhaps the state is more intuitive to manage in one vs. the other. Or they are talking about features. I know Vue and Svelte have animation helpers built-in while React does not. But React has hooks and people generally like those. These are aspects of the DX of these technologies.

Or they might be speaking about the feeling around the tools surrounding the core technology. I know create-react-app is widely beloved, but so is the Vue CLI. React Router is hugely popular, but Vue has a router that is blessed (and maintained) by the core team which offers a certain feeling of trust.

> vue create hello-world > npx create-react-app my-app

I’m not using JavaScript frameworks/libraries as just any random example. I hear people talk about DX as it relates to JavaScript more than anything else — which could be due to the people in my circles, but it feels notable.

People think of the world around the technology.

Everybody thinks good docs are important. There is no such thing as a technology that is better than another but has much worse docs. The one with the better docs is better overall because it has better docs. That’s not the technology itself; that’s the world around it.

Have you ever seen a developer product with an API, and when you view the docs for the API while logged in, it uses API keys and data and settings from your own account to demonstrate? That’s extraordinary to me. That feels like DX to me.

Airtable docs showing me API usage with my own data.

“Make the right thing easy,” notes Jake Dohm.

That word, easy, feels highly related to DX. Technologies that make things easy are technologies with good DX. In usage as well as in understanding. How easily (and quickly) can I understand what your technology does and what I can do with it?

What the technology does is often only half of the story. The happy path might be great, but what happens when it breaks or errors? How is the error reporting and logging? I think of Apollo and GraphQL here in my own experience. It’s such a great technology, but the error reporting feels horrendous in that it’s very difficult to track down even stuff like typos triggering errors in development.

What is the debugging story like? Are there special tools for it? The same goes for testing. These things are fundamental DX issues.

People think of technology offerings.

For instance, a technology might be “good” already. Say it has an API that developers like. Then it starts offering a CLI. That’s (generally) a DX improvement, because it opens up doors for developers who prefer working in that world and who build processes around it.

I think of things like Netlify Dev here. They already have this great platform and then say, here, you can run it all on your own machine too. That’s taking DX seriously.

One aspect of Netlify Dev that is nice: The terminal command to start my local dev environment across all my sites on Netlify, regardless of what technology powers them, is the same: netlify dev

Having a dedicated CLI is almost always a good DX step, assuming it is well done and maintained. I remember WordPress before WP-CLI, and now lots of documentation just assumes you’re using it. I wasn’t even aware Cloudinary had a CLI until the other day when I needed it and was pleasantly surprised that it was there. I remember when npm scripts started taking over the world. (What would npm be without a CLI?) We used to have a variety of different task runners, but now it’s largely assumed a project has run commands built into the package.json that you use to do anything the project needs to do.

Melanie Sumner thinks of CLIs immediately as core DX.

People think of the literal experience of coding.

There is nothing more directly DX than the experience of typing code into code editing software and running it. That’s what “coding” is and that’s what developers do. It’s no wonder that developers take that experience seriously and are constantly trying to improve it for themselves and their teams. I think of things like VS Code in how it’s essentially the DX of it that has made it so dominant in the code editing space in such a short time. VS Code does all kinds of things that developers like, does them well, does them fast, and allows for a very wide degree of customization.

TypeScript keeps growing in popularity no doubt in part due to the experience it offers within VS Code. TypeScript literally helps you code better by showing you, for example, what functions need as parameters, and making it hard to do the wrong thing.

Then there is the experience outside the editor, which in the browser itself. Years ago, I wrote Style Injection is for Winners where my point was, as a CSS developer, the experience of saving CSS code and seeing the changes instantly in the browser is a DX you definitely want to have. That concept continues to live on, growing up to JavaScript as well, where “hot reloading” is goosebump-worthy.

The difference between a poor developer environment (no IDE help, slow saves, manual refreshes, slow pipelines) and a great developer environment (fancy editor assistance, hot reloading, fast everything) is startling. A good developer environment, good DX, makes you a better and more productive programmer.

People compare it to user experience (UX).

There is a strong negative connotation to DX sometimes. It happens when people blame it for it existing at the cost of user experience.

I think of things like client-side developer-only libraries. Think of the classic library that everyone loves to dunk: Moment.js. Moment allows you to manipulate dates in JavaScript, and is often used client-side to do that. Users don’t care if you have a fancy API available to manipulate dates. That is entirely a developer convenience. So, you ship this library for yourself (good DX) at the cost of slowing down the website (bad UX). Most client-side JavaScript is in this category.

Equally as often, people connect developer experience and user experience. If developers are empowered and effective, that will “trickle down” to produce good software, the theory goes.

Worst case, we’re in a situation where UX and DX are on a teeter totter. Pile on some DX and UX suffers on the other side. Best case, we find ways to disentangle DX and UX entirely, finding value in both and taking both seriously. Although if one has to win, certainly it should be the users. Like the HTML spec says:

In case of conflict, consider users over authors over implementors over specifiers over theoretical purity. People think about time.

How long does a technology take to adopt? Good DX considers this. Can I take advantage of it without rewriting everything? How quickly can I spin it up? How well does it play with other technologies I use? What is my time investment?

This kind of thing makes me think of some recent experience with Cloudflare Workers. It’s really cool technology that we don’t have time to get all into right here, but suffice to say it gives you control over a website at a high level that we often don’t think about. Like what if you could manipulate a network request before it even gets to your web server? You don’t have to use it, but because of the level it operates on, new doors open up without caring about or interfering with whatever technologies you are using.

Not only does the technology itself position itself well, the DX of using it, while there are some rough edges, is at least well-considered, providing a browser-based testing environment.

A powerful tool with a high investment cost, eh, that’s cool. But a powerful tool with low investment cost is good DX.

People don’t want to think about it.

They say the best typography goes unnoticed because all you see is the what the words are telling you, not the typography itself. That can be true of developer experience. The best DX is that you never notice the tools or the technology because they just work.

Good DX is just being able to do your job rather than fight with tools. The tools could be your developer environment, it could be build tooling, it could be hosting stuff, or it could even be whatever APIs you are interfacing with. Is the API intuitive and helpful, or obtuse and tricky?

Feel free to keep going on this in the comments. What is DX to you?

  1. Are we capitalizing Developer Experience? I’m just gonna go for it.
  2. Looks like Michael Mahemoff has a decent claim on coining the term.

The post What is Developer Experience (DX)? appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

My Flywheel Landing Page

Css Tricks - Mon, 06/15/2020 - 5:14am

Flywheel is my WordPress hosting partner here. I use Local every day for my WordPress local development environment and use their hosting for all my WordPress sites as part of my whole flow, so I’m glad they aren’t just a sponsor but a product I use and like.

Last November some of their crew came out and shot some photos and video with me, which was cool and fun and made me feel famous lolll.

They ultimately built a landing page from it, which is super well done!

Just look at me being all famous.

Check out some photos that Kimberly Bailey took while the gang was here.

And the video!

Anyway feel free to check out that landing page and if your company is headed to make a WordPress hosting decision soon, might as well use my referral link ;)

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Striking a Balance Between Native and Custom Select Elements

Css Tricks - Fri, 06/12/2020 - 4:43am

Here’s the plan! We’re going to build a styled select element. Not just the outside, but the inside too. Total styling control. Plus we’re going to make it accessible. We’re not going to try to replicate everything that the browser does by default with a native <select> element. We’re going to literally use a <select> element when any assistive tech is used. But when a mouse is being used, we’ll show the styled version and make it function as a select element.

That’s what I mean by “hybrid” selects: they are both a native <select> and a styled alternate select in one design pattern.

Custom selects (left) are often used in place of native selects (right) for aesthetics and design consistency. Select, dropdown, navigation, menu… the name matters

While doing the research for this article, I thought about many names that get tossed around when talking about selects, the most common of which are “dropdown” and “menu.” There are two types of naming mistakes we could make: giving the same name to different things, or giving different names to the same thing. A select can suffer from both mistakes.

Before we move ahead, let me try to add clarity around using “dropdown” as a term. Here’s how I define the meaning of dropdown:

Dropdown: An interactive component that consists of a button that shows and hides a list of items, typically on mouse hover, click or tap. The list is not visible by default until the interaction starts. The list usually displays a block of content (i.e. options) on top of other content.

A lot of interfaces can look like a dropdown. But simply calling an element a “dropdown” is like using “fish” to describe an animal. What type of fish it is? A clownfish is not the same as a shark. The same goes for dropdowns.

Like there are different types of fish in the sea, there are different types of components that we might be talking about when we toss the word “dropdown” around:

  • Menu: A list of commands or actions that the user can perform within the page content.
  • Navigation: A list of links used for navigating through a website.
  • Select: A form control (<select>) that displays a list of options for the user to select within a form.

Deciding what type of dropdown we’re talking about can be a foggy task. Here are some examples from around the web that match how I would classify those three different types. This is based on my research and sometimes, when I can’t find a proper answer, intuition based on my experience.

Dropdown-land: Five scenarios where different dropdowns are used across the internet. Read the table below for a detailed description. Diagram LabelScenarioDropdown Type1The dropdown expects a selected option to be submitted within a form context (e.g. Select Age)Select2The dropdown does not need an active option (e.g. A list of actions: copy, paste and cut)Menu3The selected option influences the content. (e.g. sorting list)Menu or Select (more about it later)4The dropdown contains links to other pages. (e.g. A “meganav” with websites links)Disclosure Navigation5The dropdown has content that is not a list. (e.g. a date picker)Something else that should not be called dropdown

Not everyone perceives and interacts with the internet in the same way. Naming user interfaces and defining design patterns is a fundamental process, though one with a lot of room for personal interpretation. All of that variation is what drives the population of dropdown-land. 

There is a dropdown type that is clearly a menu. Its usage is a hot topic in conversations about accessibility. I won’t talk much about it here, but let me just reinforce that the <menu> element is deprecated and no longer recommended. And here’s a detailed explanation about inclusive menus and menus buttons, including why ARIA menu role should not be used for site navigation.

We haven’t even touched on other elements that fall into a rather gray area that makes classifying dropdowns even murkier because of a lack of practical uses cases from the WCAG community.

Uff… that was a lot. Let’s forget about this dropdown-land mess and focus exclusively on the dropdown type that is clearly a <select> element.

Let’s talk about <select>

Styling form controls is an interesting journey. As MDN puts it, there’s the good, the bad, and the ugly. Good is stuff like <form> which is just a block-level element to style. Bad is stuff like checkboxes, which can be done but is somewhat cumbersome. <select> is definitely in ugly terrain.

A lot of articles have been written about it and, even in 2020, it’s still a challenge to create custom selects and some users still prefer the simple native ones

Among developers, the <select> is the most frustrating form control by far, mainly because of its lack of styling support. The UX struggle behind it is so big that we look for other alternatives. Well, I guess the first rule of <select> is similar to ARIA: avoid using it if you can.

I could finish the article right here with “Don’t use <select>, period.” But let’s face reality: a select is still our best solution in a number of circumstances. That might include scenarios where we’re working with a list that contains a lot of options, layouts that are tight on space, or simply a lack of time or budget to design and implement a great custom interactive component from scratch.

Custom <select> requirements

When we make the decision to create a custom select — even if it’s just a “simple” one — these are the requirements we generally have to work with:

  • There is a button that contains the current selected option.
  • Clicking the box toggles the visibility of the options list (also called listbox).
  • Clicking an option in the listbox updates the selected value. The button text changes and the listbox is closed.
  • Clicking outside the component closes the listbox.
  • The trigger contains a small triangle icon pointing downward to indicate there are options.

Something like this:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Some of you may be thinking this works and is good to go. But wait… does it work for everyone?  Not everyone uses a mouse (or touch screen). Plus, a native <select> element comes with more features we get for free and aren’t included in those requirements, such as:

  • The checked option is perceivable for all users regardless of their visual abilities.
  • The component can interact with a keyboard in a predictable way across all browsers (e.g. using arrow keys to navigate, Enter to select, Esc to cancel, etc.).
  • Assistive technologies (e.g. screen readers) announce the element clearly to users, including its role, name and state.
  • The listbox position is adjusted. (i.e. does not get cut off of the screen).
  • The element respects the user’s operating system preferences (e.g high contrast, color scheme, motion, etc.).

This is where the majority of the custom selects fail in some way. Take a look at some of the major UI components libraries. I won’t mention any because the web is ephemeral, but go give it a try. You’ll likely notice that the select component in one framework behaves differently from another. 

Here are additional characteristics to watch for:

  • Is a listbox option immediately activated on focus when navigating with a keyboard?
  • Can you use Enter and/or Space to select an option?
  • Does the Tab key jump go to the next option in the listbox, or jump to the next form control?
  • What happens when you reach the last option in the listbox using arrow keys? Does it simply stay at the last item, does it go back to the first option, or worst of all, does focus move to the next form control? 
  • Is it possible to jump directly to the last item in the listbox using the Page Down key?
  • Is it possible to scroll through the listbox items if there are more than what is currently in view?

This is a small sample of the features included in a native <select> element.

Once we decide to create our own custom select, we are forcing people to use it in a certain way that may not be what they expect.

But it gets worse. Even the native <select> behaves differently across browsers and screen readers. Once we decide to create our own custom select, we are forcing people to use it in a certain way that may not be what they expect. That’s a dangerous decision and it’s in those details where the devil lives.

Building a “hybrid” select

When we build a simple custom select, we are making a trade-off without noticing it. Specifically, we sacrifice functionality to aesthetics. It should be the other way around.

What if we instead deliver a native select by default and replace it with a more aesthetically pleasing one if possible? That’s where the “hybrid” select idea comes into action. It’s “hybrid” because it consists of two selects, showing the appropriate one at the right moment:

  • A native select, visible and accessible by default
  • A custom select, hidden until it’s safe to be interacted with a mouse

Let’s start with markup. First, we’ll add a native <select> with <option> items before the custom selector for this to work. (I’ll explain why in just a bit.)

Any form control must have a descriptive label. We could use <label>, but that would focus the native select when the label is clicked. To prevent that behavior, we’ll use a <span> and connect it to the select using aria-labelledby.

Finally, we need to tell Assistive Technologies to ignore the custom select, using aria-hidden="true". That way, only the native select is announced by them, no matter what.

<span class="selectLabel" id="jobLabel">Main job role</span> <div class="selectWrapper">   <select class="selectNative js-selectNative" aria-labelledby="jobLabel">     <!-- options -->     <option></option>   </select>   <div class="selectCustom js-selectCustom" aria-hidden="true">      <!-- The beautiful custom select -->   </div> </div>

This takes us to styling, where we not only make things look pretty, but where we handle the switch from one select to the other. We need just a few new declarations to make all the magic happen.

First, both native and custom selects must have the same width and height. This ensures people don’t see major differences in the layout when a switch happens.

.selectNative, .selectCustom {   position: relative;   width: 22rem;   height: 4rem; }

There are two selects, but only one can dictate the space that holds them. The other needs to be absolutely positioned to take it out of the document flow. Let’s do that to the custom select because it’s the “replacement” that’s used only if it can be. We’ll hide it by default so it can’t be reached by anyone just yet.

.selectCustom {   position: absolute;   top: 0;   left: 0;   display: none; }

Here comes the “funny” part. We need to detect if someone is using a device where hover is part of the primary input, like a computer with a mouse. While we typically think of media queries for responsive breakpoints or checking feature support, we can use it to detect hover support too using @media query (hover :hover), which is supported by all major browsers. So, let’s use it to show the custom select only on devices that have hover:

@media (hover: hover) {   .selectCustom {     display: block;   } }

Great, but what about people who use a keyboard to navigate even in devices that have hover? What we’ll do is hide the custom select when the native select is in focus. We can reach for an adjacent Sibling combinatioron (+). When the native select is in focus, hide the custom select next to it in the DOM order. (This is why the native select should be placed before the custom one.)

@media (hover: hover) {   .selectNative:focus + .selectCustom {     display: none;   } }

That’s it! The trick to switch between both selects is done! There are other CSS ways to do it, of course, but this works nicely.

Last, we need a sprinkle of JavaScript. Let’s add some event listeners:

  • One for click events that trigger the custom select to open and reveal the options
  • One to sync both selects values. When one select value is changed, the other select value updates as well
  • One for basic keyboard navigation controls, like navigation with Up and Down keys, selecting options with the Enter or Space keys, and closing the select with Esc
CodePen Embed Fallback Usability testing

I conducted a very small usability test where I asked a few people with disabilities to try the hybrid select component. The following devices and tools were tested using the latest versions of Chrome (81), Firefox (76) and Safari (13):

  • Desktop device using mouse only
  • Desktop device using keyboard only
  • VoiceOver on MacOS using keyboard
  • NVDA on Windows using keyboard
  • VoiceOver on iPhone and iPad using Safari

All these tests worked as expected, but I believe this could have even more usability tests with more diverse people and tools. If you have access to other devices or tools — such as JAWS, Dragon, etc. — please tell me how the test goes.

An issue was found during testing. Specifically, the issue was with the VoiceOver setting “Mouse pointers: Moves Voice Over cursor.” If the user opens the select with a mouse, the custom select will be opened (instead of the native) and the user won’t experience the native select.

What I most like about this approach is how it uses the best of both worlds without compromising the core functionality:

  • Users on mobile and tablets get the native select, which generally offers a better user experience than a custom select, including performance benefits.
  • Keyboard users get to interact with the native select the way they would expect.
  • Assistive Technologies can interact with the native select like normal.
  • Mouse users get to interact with the enhanced custom select.

This approach provides essential native functionality for everyone without the extra huge code effort to implement all the native features.

Don’t get me wrong. This technique is not a one-size-fits-all solution. It may work for simple selects but probably won’t work for cases that involve complex interactions. In those cases, we’d need to use ARIA and JavaScript to complement the gaps and create a truly accessible custom select.

A note about selects that look like menus

Let’s take a look back at the third Dropdown-land scenario. If you recall, it’s  a dropdown that always has a checked option (e.g. sorting some content). I classified it in the gray area, as either a menu or a select. 

Here’s my line of thought: Years ago, this type of dropdown was implemented mostly using a native <select>. Nowadays, it is common to see it implemented from scratch with custom styles (accessible or not). What we end up with is a select element that looks like a menu. 

A <select>  is a type of menu. Both have similar semantics and behavior, especially in a scenario that involves a list of options where one is always checked.  Now, let me mention the WCAG 3.2.2 On Input (Level A) criterion:

Changing the setting of any user interface component should not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.

Let’s put this in practice. Imagine a sortable list of students. Visually, it may be obvious that sorting is immediate, but that’s not necessarily true for everyone. So, when using <select>, we risk failing the WCAG guideline because the page content changed, and ignificantly re-arranging the content of a page is considered a change of context.

To ensure the criterion success, we must warn the user about the action before they interact with the element, or include a <button> immediately after the select to confirm the change.

<label for="sortStudents">   Sort students   <!-- Warn the user about the change when a confirmation button is not present. -->   <span class="visually-hidden">(Immediate effect upon selection)</span> </label> <select id="sortStudents"> ... </select>

That said, using a <select> or building a custom menu are both good approaches when it comes to simple menus that change the page content. Just remember that your decision will dictate the amount of work required to make the component fully accessible. This is a scenario where the hybrid select approach could be used.

Final words

This whole idea started as an innocent CSS trick but, after all of this research, I was reminded once more that creating unique experiences without compromising accessibility is not an easy task.

Building truly accessible select components (or any kind of dropdown) is harder than it looks. WCAG provides excellent guidance and best practices, but without specific examples and diverse practical uses cases, the guidelines are mostly aspirational. That’s not to mention the fact that ARIA support is tepid and that native <select> elements look and behave differently across browsers.

The “hybrid” select is just another attempt to create a good looking select while getting as many native features as possible. Don’t look at this technique experiment as an excuse to downplay accessibility, but rather as an attempt to serve both worlds. If you have the resources, time and the needed skills, please do it right and make sure to test it with different users before shipping your component to the world.

P.S. Remember to use a proper name when making a “dropdown” component. &#x1f609;

The post Striking a Balance Between Native and Custom Select Elements appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Learn Z-Index Using a Visualization Tool

Css Tricks - Fri, 06/12/2020 - 4:43am

There are some neat interactive demos in here from Thiru Manikandan. There are a couple of very tricky things with z-index that never fail to confuse. In addition to things like requiring positioning and source order, the trickiest are the stacking contexts and parent/child relationships. z-index isn’t a flat playing field. Even if you put z-index: 2147483644¹ on an element, it’s possible nothing will happen because that element might be inside a parent element with its own stacking context and a lower z-index than a sibling or some higher-up level DOM element.

  1. Just three shy of the maximum 2147483647. LOLZ. Hat tip to Dan Danney who mentioned seeing that in the wild recently.

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Css Tricks - Thu, 06/11/2020 - 10:59am

A CSS methodology from Andy Bell:

The most important part of this methodology is the language itself: CSS. It’s key to note its existence in the name because some alternative approaches, such as BEM—which I have enjoyed for many years—can veer very far away from Cascading Style Sheets. I love CSS, though and think that its core capabilities are actually key to scalable CSS.

A favorite bit…

[…] a design system doesn’t just make you think at a micro-level, but also at a macro-level, because you have to make not just decisions about pixels, but also high-level organisation decisions which the design system helps to solve. Design system work is actually diplomacy work, a lot of the time.

This is often where I see narrow, component-only tunnel vision fall short and really, these approaches are less design systems, but more component libraries that solve a much narrower cohort of problems.

I like the idea of approaching CSS both from an inside-out philosophy — focusing on styling very small specific things then grouping them together to grow bigger thing — and from an outside-in philosophy — not forgetting that components need to be composed together sensibly.

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How to Reverse CSS Custom Counters

Css Tricks - Thu, 06/11/2020 - 4:42am

I needed a numbered list of blog posts to be listed with the last/high first and going down from there. Like this:

5. Post Title 4. Post Title 3. Post Title 2. Post Title 1. Post Title

But the above is just text. I wanted to do this with a semantic <ol> element.

The easy way

This can be done using HTML’ s reversed property on the <ol>:

<ol reversed>   <li>This</li>   <li>List</li>   <li>Will Be</li>   <li>Numbered In</li>   <li>Reverse</li> </ol>

For most people, this would be enough. Job done. 

But I needed custom styles for the counters. 

Let it be known that custom list number styles can be done with the ::marker pseudo-element, but that isn’t yet supported by Chrome (although I hear it’s coming soon).

Because I wanted fully cross-browser compatible custom number styles, I went with custom counters. 

Adding and styling a custom counter

Styling the counters of an ordered list differently from the rest of the list requires disabling the default counters and creating and show our own using CSS Counters. Chris shared a few recipes a while back that are worth checking out.

Assuming we have the following HTML:

<ol class="fancy-numbered">   <li>Item 1</li>   <li>Item 2</li>   <li>Item 3</li> </ol>

…we first need to disable the default counters that come with all ordered lists by setting the CSS property list-style-type to none like so:

ol.fancy-numbered {   list-style-type: none; }

That takes out all the default numbering. Next, we create a counter in CSS to track the number of items in the list.

ol.fancy-numbered {   list-style-type: none;   counter-reset: a; }

This gives us a counter named “a” but it can be called it whatever you like. Let’s display our counter using the ::before pseudo-element on the list item (<li>).

ol.fancy-numbered li::before {   content: counter(a)'.'; }

This will set the content of the pseudo-element to the value of our counter. Right now, that will print 1’s next to your list item.

We need to tell the CSS counter how to increment.

ol.fancy-numbered li::before {   content: counter(a)'.';   counter-increment: a; }

The starting value of “a” is zero, which seems weird, but the default increment is 1, meaning that becomes the actual starting point.  Incrementing up by 1 just happens to be the default, but we can change that as we’ll soon see.

We can now proceed to apply any custom styles we want to the counter, because the counter is just a text pseudo-element that is wide open to styling:

ol.fancy-numbered li::before {   content: counter(a)'.';   counter-increment: a;      position: absolute;      left: 0;      color: blue;      font-size: 4rem; }

For example, here, we’ve made the counter color blue and increased the font size. These are things that we couldn’t do using the default counter.

Reversing custom counters

If we add the reversed property to the <ol> element like we did before, we will observe no effect because we disabled the default numbering. That’s just what this property does.

<ol class="fancy-numbered" reversed>   <li>Item 1</li>   <li>Item 2</li>   <li>Item 3</li> </ol>

The code above has no effect on our custom numbering. It’s still probably a good idea to leave it on there, since our intention is to reverse the list. This keeps things semantically accurate.

To reverse the visual order of our counter-based numbering, we need to know the total number of items in the list and instruct the counter to start from that number and then decrement from there.

ol.fancy-numbered {   counter-reset: a 4;   list-style-type: none; }

Here, we’re setting counter-reset to 4. In other words, we’re telling the browser to start the count at 4 instead of 1. We use 4 instead of 3, again, because the counter() rule is applied to the first item on the list, which is 0. But, in the case where we’re counting backwards, 4 becomes our 0. If we started from 3 and decremented, wind up at 0 instead of 1.

Next, we alter our counter-increment rule to decrease by 1 rather than increase, by making it a negative integer.

ol.fancy-numbered li:before {   content: counter(a)'.';   counter-increment: a -1;   position: absolute;      left: 0;      color: blue;      font-size: 4rem; }

And that’s it! Now the world is your oyster for stuff like step trackers:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Or how about a timeline:

CodePen Embed Fallback

Maybe a business plan?

CodePen Embed Fallback

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Creative Background Patterns Using Gradients, CSS Shapes, and Even Emojis

Css Tricks - Wed, 06/10/2020 - 4:45am

You can create stripes in CSS. That’s all I thought about in terms of CSS background patterns for a long time. There’s nothing wrong with stripes; stripes are cool. They can be customized into wide and narrow bands, criss-crossed into a checked pattern, and played with in other ways using the idea of hard stops. But stripes can be boring, too. Too conventional, out of fashion, and sometimes even unpleasant.

Thankfully, we can conjure up far more background patterns than you can even imagine with CSS, with code that is similar in spirit to stripes.

Background patterns are images repeated across a background. They can be done by referencing an external image, like a PNG file, or can be drawn with CSS, which is traditionally done using CSS gradients. 

Linear gradients (and repeating linear gradients) for instance, are typically used for stripes. But there are other ways to create cool background patterns. Let’s see how we can use gradients in other ways and toss in other things, like CSS shapes and emoji, to spice things up.

Gradient patterns

There are three types of CSS gradients.

Linear (left), radial (center) and conic (right) gradients
  1. linear-gradient(): Colors flow from left-to-right, top-to-bottom, or at any angle you choose in a single direction.
  2. radial-gradient(): Colors start at a single point and emanate outward
  3. conic-gradient(): Similar in concept to radial gradients, but the color stops are placed around the circle rather than emanating from the center point.

I recommend checking out the syntax for all the gradients to thoroughly understand how to start and end a color in a gradient.

Radial gradient patterns

Let’s look at radial gradients first because they give us very useful things: circles and ellipses. Both can be used for patterns that are very interesting and might unlock some ideas for you!

background: radial-gradient(<gradient values>)

Here’s a pattern of repeating watermelons using this technique:

CodePen Embed Fallback background: radial-gradient(circle at 25px 9px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 49px 28px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 38px 1px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 20px 4px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 80px 4px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 50px 10px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 60px 16px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(circle at 70px 16px, black 2px, transparent 2px), radial-gradient(ellipse at 50px 0, red 33px, lime 33px, lime 38px, transparent 38px) white; background-size: 100px 50px;

We start by providing a background size on the element then stack up the gradients inside it. An ellipse forms the green and red parts. Black circles are scattered across to represent the watermelon seeds. 

The first two parameters for a radial gradient function determine whether the gradient shape is a circle or an ellipse and the starting position of the gradient. That’s followed by the gradient color values along with the start and ending positions within the gradient.

Conic gradient patterns

Conic gradients create ray-like shapes. Like linear and radial gradients, conic gradients can be used to create geometric patterns.

background: conic-gradient(<gradient values>) CodePen Embed Fallback background:    conic-gradient(yellow 40deg, blue 40deg, blue 45deg, transparent 45deg),    conic-gradient(transparent 135deg, blue 135deg, blue 140deg, transparent 140deg) ; background-size: 60px 60px; background-color: white;

The rub with conic gradient is that it’s not supported in Firefox, at least at the time of writing. It’s always worth keeping an eye out for deeper support.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

DesktopChromeFirefoxIEEdgeSafari69NoNo7912.1Mobile / TabletAndroid ChromeAndroid FirefoxAndroidiOS Safari81No8112.2-12.4 Emoji icon patterns

This is where things begin to get interesting. Rather than just using geometric patterns (as in gradients), we now use the organic shapes of emojis to create background patterns. &#x1f389; 

It starts with emoji icons. 

Solid-color emoji patterns

We can create emoji icons by giving emojis a transparent color and text shadow.

color: transparent; text-shadow: 0 0 black;

Those icons can then be turned into an image that can be used as a background, using SVG.

<svg>   <foreignObject>     <!-- The HTML code with emoji -->   </foreignObject> </svg>

The SVG can then be referred by the background property using data URL

background: url("data:image/svg+xml,<svg xmlns=%22 viewBox=%220 0 100 100%22><!-- SVG code --></svg>");

And, voilá! We get something like this:

CodePen Embed Fallback background: url("data:image/svg+xml,<svg xmlns=%22 viewBox=%220 0 100 100%22><foreignObject width=%22100px%22 height=%22100px%22><div xmlns=%22 style=%22color:transparent;text-shadow: 0 0 %23e42100, -2px 2px 0 black;font-size:70px%22>&#x1f3c4;‍♀️</div></foreignObject></svg>"), white; background-size: 60px 60px;

Other than emojis, it’s also possible to draw CSS shapes and use them as patterns. Emojis are less work, though. Just saying. 

Gradient-colored emoji patterns

Instead of using plain emoji icons, we can use gradient emoji icons. To do that, skip the text shadow on the emojis. Add a gradient background behind them and use background-clip to trim the gradient background to the shape of the emojis. 

color: transparent; background: linear-gradient(45deg, blue 20%, fuchsia); background-clip: text; /* Safari requires -webkit prefix */

Then, just as before, use the combination of SVG and data URL to create the background pattern.

CodePen Embed Fallback Translucent-colored emoji patterns

This is same as using block colored emoji icons. This time, however, we take away the opaqueness of the colors by using rgba() or hsla() values for the text shadow. 

color: transparent; text-shadow: 20px 10px rgba(0, 255, 0, .3), 0 0 red; CodePen Embed Fallback SVG-text emoji patterns

We’ve already looked at all the working methods I could think of to create background patterns, but I feel like I should also mention this other technique I tried, which is not as widely supported as I’d hoped.

 I tried placing the emoji in an SVG <text> element instead of the HTML added using <foreignObject>. But I wasn’t able to create a solid shadow behind it in all the browsers.

CodePen Embed Fallback background:    url("data:image/svg+xml,<svg xmlns=%22 viewBox=%220 0 100 100%22><text y=%221em%22 font-size=%2270%22 fill=%22transparent%22 style=%22text-shadow: 0 0 %23e42100, -2px 2px 5px black, 0 0 6px white; ;%22>&#x1f3c4;‍♀️</text></svg>")

Just in case, I tried using CSS and SVG filters for the shadow as well, thinking that might work. It didn’t. I also tried using the stroke attribute, to at least create an outline for the emoji, but that didn’t work, either. 

CSS element() patterns

I didn’t think of SVG when I first thought of converting emoji icons or CSS shapes into background images. I tried CSS element(). It’s a function that directly converts an HTML element into an image that can be referenced and used. I really like this approach, but browser support is a huge caveat, which is why I’m mentioning it here at the end.

Basically, we can drop an element in the HTML like this:

<div id=snake >&#x1f40d;</div>

…then pass it into the element() function to use like an image on other elements, like this:

background:    -moz-element(#snake), /* Firefox only */   linear-gradient(45deg, transparent 20px, blue 20px, blue 30px, transparent 30px)    white; background-size: 60px 60px; background-color: white;

Now that snake emoji is technically an image that we get to include in the pattern.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Again, browser support is spotty, making this approach super experimental.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

DesktopChromeFirefoxIEEdgeSafariNo4*NoNoNoMobile / TabletAndroid ChromeAndroid FirefoxAndroidiOS SafariNo68*NoNo

In this method, the original emoji (or any CSS shape for that matter) used for the background pattern needs to render on screen for it to appear in the background pattern as well. To hide that original emoji, I used mix-blend-mode — it sort of masks out the original emoji in the HTML so it doesn’t show up on the page.

I hope you find the methods in this post useful in one way or another and learned something new in the process! Give them a try. Experiment with different emojis and CSS shapes because gradients, while cool and all, aren’t the only way to make patterns.. The background property takes multiple values, allowing us to think of creative ways to stack things.

The post Creative Background Patterns Using Gradients, CSS Shapes, and Even Emojis appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

CSS :is() and :where() are coming to browsers

Css Tricks - Wed, 06/10/2020 - 4:45am

Šime Vidas with the lowdown on what these pseudo-selectors are and why they will be useful:

  • :is() is to reduce repetition¹ of parts of comma-separated selectors.
  • :where() is the same, but nothing inside it affects specificity. The example of wrapping :where(:not()) is really great, as now there is a way to use :not() without bumping up the selector weight in a way you very likely don’t want.
  1. This is something that CSS preprocessors are good at (via nesting). Another nice little example of community-built tech pushing forward and native tech coming up later to help once the idea is fleshed out.

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Cool Little CSS Grid Tricks for Your Blog

Css Tricks - Tue, 06/09/2020 - 12:00pm

I discovered CSS about a decade ago while trying to modify the look of a blog I had created. Pretty soon, I was able to code cool things with more mathematical and, therefore, easier-to-understand features like transforms. However, other areas of CSS, such as layout, have remained a constant source of pain.

This post is about a problem I encountered about a decade ago and, until recently, did not know how to solve in a smart way. Specifically, it’s about how I found a solution to a long-running problem using a modern CSS grid technique that, in the process, gave me even cooler results than I originally imagined.

That this is not a tutorial on how to best use CSS grid, but more of a walk through my own learning process.

The problem

One of the first things I used to dump on that blog were random photos from the city, so I had this idea about having a grid of thumbnails with a fixed size. For a nicer look, I wanted this grid to be middle-aligned with respect to the paragraphs above and below it, but, at the same time, I wanted the thumbnails on the last row to be left-aligned with respect to the grid. Meanwhile, the width of the post (and the width of the grid within it) would depend on the viewport.

The HTML looks something like this:

<section class='post__content'> <p><!-- some text --></p> <div class='grid--thumbs'> <a href='full-size-image.jpg'> <img src='thumb-image.jpg' alt='image description'/> </a> <!-- more such thumbnails --> </div> <p><!-- some more text --></p> </section>

It may seem simple, but it turned out to be one of the most difficult CSS problems I’ve ever encountered.

Less than ideal solutions

These are things I have tried or seen suggested over the years, but that never really got me anywhere.

Floating impossibility

Floats turned out to be a dead end because I couldn’t figure out how to make the grid be middle aligned this way.

.grid--thumbs { overflow: hidden; } .grid--thumbs a { float: left; }

The demo below shows the float attempt. Resize the embed to see how they behave at different viewport widths.

CodePen Embed Fallback inline-block madness

At first, this seemed like a better idea:

.grid--thumbs { text-align: center } .grid--thumbs a { display: inline-block }

Except it turned out it wasn’t:

CodePen Embed Fallback

The last row isn’t left aligned in this case.

At a certain point, thanks to an accidental CSS auto-complete on CodePen, I found out about a property called text-align-last, which determines how the last line of a block is aligned.

Unfortunately, setting text-align-last: left on the grid wasn’t the solution I was looking for either:

CodePen Embed Fallback

At this point, I actually considered dropping the idea of a middle aligned grid. Could a combo of text-align: justified and text-align-last: left on the grid produce a better result?

Well, turns out it doesn’t. That is, unless there’s only a thumbnail on the last row and the gaps between the columns aren’t too big. Resize the embed below to see what I mean.

CodePen Embed Fallback

This is pretty where I was at two years ago, after nine years of trying and failing to come up with a solution to this problem.

Messy flexbox hacks

A flexbox solution that seemed like it would work at first was to add an ::after pseudo-element on the grid and set flex: 1 on both the thumbnails and this pseudo-element:

.grid--thumbs { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; a, &::after { flex: 1; } img { margin: auto; } &:after { content: 'AFTER'; } }

The demo below shows how this method works. I’ve given the thumbnails and the ::after pseudo-element purple outlines to make it easier to see what is going on.

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This is not quite what I wanted because the grid of thumbnails is not middle-aligned. Thats said, it doesn’t look too bad… as long as the last row has exactly one item less image than the others. As soon as that changes, however, the layout breaks if it’s missing more items or none.

Why the ::after hack is not reliable.

That was one hacky idea. Another is to use a pseudo-element again, but add as many empty divs after the thumbnails as there are columns that we’re expecting to have. That number is something we should be able to approximate since the size of the thumbnails is fixed. We probably want to set a maximum width for the post since text that stretches across the width of a full screen can visually exhausting for eyes to read.

The first empty elements will take up the full width of the row that’s not completely filled with thumbnails, while the rest will spill into other rows. But since their height is zero, it won’t matter visually.

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This kind of does the trick but, again, it’s hacky and still doesn’t produce the exact result I want since it sometimes ends up with big and kind of ugly-looking gaps between the columns.

A grid solution?

The grid layout has always sounded like the answer, given its name. The problem was that all examples I had seen by then were using a predefined number of columns and that doesn’t work for this particular pattern where the number of columns is determined by the viewport width.

Last year, while coding a collection of one element, pure CSS background patterns, I had the idea of generating a bunch of media queries that would modify a CSS variable, --n, corresponding to the number of columns used to set grid-template-columns.

$w: 13em; $h: 19em; $f: $h/$w; $n: 7; $g: 1em; --h: #{$f*$w}; display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(var(--n, #{$n}), var(--w, #{$w})); grid-gap: $g; place-content: center; @for $i from 1 to $n { @media (max-width: ($n - $i + 1)*$w + ($n - $i + 2)*$g) { --n: #{$n - $i} } } CodePen Embed Fallback

I was actually super proud of this idea at the time, even though I cringe looking back on it now. One media query for every number of columns possible is not exactly ideal, not to mention it doesn’t work so well when the grid width doesn’t equal the viewport width, but is still somewhat flexible and also depends on the width of its siblings.

A magic solution

I finally came across a better solution while working with CSS grid and failing to understand why the repeat() function wasn’t working in a particular situation. It was so frustrating and prompted me to go to MDN, where I happened to notice the auto-fit keyword and, while I didn’t understand the explanation, I had a hunch that it could help with this other problem, so I dropped everything else I was doing and gave it a try.

Here’s what I got:

.grid--thumbs { display: grid; justify-content: center; grid-gap: .25em; grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, 8em); } CodePen Embed Fallback

I also discovered the minmax() function, which can be used in place of fixed sizes on grid items. I still haven’t been able to understand exactly how minmax() works — and the more I play with it, the less I understand it — but what it looks like it does in this situation is create the grid then stretch its columns equally until they fill all of the available space:

grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, minmax(8em, 1fr)); CodePen Embed Fallback

Another cool thing we can do here is prevent the image from overflowing when it’s wider than the grid element. We can do this by replacing the minimum 8em with min(8em, 100%) That essentially ensures that images will never exceed 100%, but never below 8em. Thanks to Chris for this suggestion!

Note that the min() function doesn’t work in pre-Chromium Edge!

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Keep in mind that this only produces a nice result if all of the images have the same aspect ratio — like the square images I’ve used here. For my blog, this was not an issue since all photos were taken with my Sony Ericsson W800i phone, and they all had the same aspect ratio. But if we were to drop images with different aspect ratios, the grid wouldn’t look as good anymore:

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We can, of course, set the image height to a fixed value, but that distorts the images… unless we set object-fit to cover, which solves our problem!

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Another idea would be to turn the first thumbnail into a sort of banner that spans all grid columns. The one problem is that we don’t know the number of columns because that depends on the viewport. But, there is a solution — we can set grid-column-end to -1!

.grid--thumbs { /* same styles as before */ a:first-child { grid-column: 1/ -1; img { height: 13em } } }

The first image gets a bigger height than all the others.

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Of course, if we wanted the image to span all columns except the last, one we’d set it to -2 and so on… negative column indices are a thing!

auto-fill is another grid property keyword I noticed on MDN. The explanations for both are long walls of text without visuals, so I didn’t find them particularly useful. Even worse, replacing auto-fit with auto-fill in any of the grid demos above produces absolutely no difference. How they really work and how they differ still remains a mystery, even after checking out articles or toying with examples.

However, trying out different things and seeing what happens in various scenarios at one point led me to the conclusion that, if we’re using a minmax() column width and not a fixed one (like 8em), then it’s probably better to use auto-fill instead of auto-fit because, the result looks better if we happen to only have a few images, as illustrated by the interactive demo below:

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I think what I personally like best is the initial idea of a thumbnail grid that’s middle-aligned and has a mostly fixed column width (but still uses min(100%, 15em) instead of just 15em though). At the end of the day, it’s a matter of personal preference and what can be seen in the demo below just happens to look better to me:

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I’m using auto-fit in this demo because it produces the same result as auto-fill and is one character shorter. However, what I didn’t understand when making this is that both keywords produce the same result because there are more items in the gallery than we need to fill a row.

But once that changes, auto-fit and auto-fill produce different results, as illustrated below. You can change the justify-content value and the number of items placed on the grid:

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I’m not really sure which is the better choice. I guess this also depends on personal preference. Coupled with justify-content: center, auto-fill seems to be the more logical option, but, at the same time, auto-fit produces a better-looking result.

The post Cool Little CSS Grid Tricks for Your Blog appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Making My Netlify Build Run Sass

Css Tricks - Tue, 06/09/2020 - 5:10am

Let’s say you wanted to build a site with Eleventy as the generator. Popular choice these days! Eleventy doesn’t have some particularly blessed way of preprocessing your CSS, if that’s something you want to do. There are a variety of ways to do it and perhaps that freedom is part of the spirit of Eleventy.

I’ve seen people set up Gulp for this, which is cool, I still use and like Gulp for some stuff. I’ve seen someone use templating to return preprocessed CSS, which seems weird, but hey, whatever works. I’ve even seen someone extend the Eleventy config itself to run the processing.

So far, the thing that has made the most sense to me is to use npm scripts do the Sass processing. Do the CSS first, then the HTML, with npm-run-all. So, you’d set up something like this in your package.json:

"scripts": { "build": "npm-run-all build:css build:html", "build:css": "node-sass src/site/_includes/css/main.scss > src/site/css/main.css", "build:html": "eleventy", "watch": "npm-run-all --parallel watch:css watch:html", "watch:css": "node-sass --watch src/site/_includes/css/main.scss > src/site/css/main.css", "watch:html": "eleventy --serve --port=8181", "start": "npm run watch" },

I think that’s fairly nice. Since Eleventy doesn’t have a blessed CSS processing route anyway, it feels OK to have it de-coupled from Eleventy processing.

But I see Netlify has come along nicely with their build plugins. As Sarah put it:

What the Build Plugin does is give you access to key points in time during that process, for instance, onPreBuildonPostBuildonSuccess, and so forth. You can execute some logic at those specific points in time

There is something really intuitive and nice about that structure. A lot of build plugins are created by the community or Netlify themselves. You just click them on via the UI or reference them in your config. But Sass isn’t a build-in project (as I write), which I would assume is because people are a pretty opinionated about what/where/how their CSS is processed that it makes sense to just let people do it themselves. So let’s do that.

In our project, we’d create a directory for our plugins, and then a folder for this particular plugin we want to write:

project-root/ src/ whatever/ plugins/ sass/ index.js manifest.yml

That index.js file is where we write our code, and we’ll specifically want to use the onPreBuild hook here, because we’d want our Sass to be done preprocessing before the build process runs Eleventy and Eleventy moves things around.

module.exports = { onPreBuild: async ({ utils: { run } }) => { await run.command( "node-sass src/site/_includes/css/main.scss src/site/css/main.css" ); }, };

Here’s a looksie into all the relevant files together:

Now, if I netlify build from the command line, it will run the same build process that Netlify itself does, and it will hook into my plugin and run it!

One little thing I noticed is that I was trying to have my config be the (newer) netlify.yml format, but the plugins didn’t work, and I had to re-do the config as netlify.toml.

So we de-coupled ourselves from Eleventy with this particular processing, and coupled ourselves to Netlify. Just something to be aware of. I’m down with that as this way of configuring a build is so nice and I see so much potential in it.

I prefer the more explicit and broken up configuration of this style. Just look at how much cleaner the package.json gets:

I still have this idea…

…of building a site that is a dog-fooded example of all the stuff you could/should do during a build process. I’ve started the site here, (and repo), but it’s not doing too much yet. I think it would be cool to wire up everything on that list (and more?) via Build Plugins.

If you wanna contribute, feel free to let me know. Maybe email me or open an issue to talk about what you’d want to do. You’re free to do a Pull Request too, but PRs without any prior communication are a little tricky sometimes as it’s harder to ensure our visions are aligned before you put in a bunch of effort.

The post Making My Netlify Build Run Sass appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

5 Myths About Jamstack

Css Tricks - Tue, 06/09/2020 - 4:51am

Jamstack isn’t necessarily new. The term was officially coined in 2016, but the technologies and architecture it describes have been around well before that. Jamstack has received a massive dose of attention recently, with articles about it appearing in major sites and publications and new Jamstack-focused events, newsletters, podcasts, and more. As someone who follows it closely, I’ve even seen what seems like a significant uptick in discussion about it on Twitter, often from people who are being newly introduced to the concept.

The buzz has also seemed to bring out the criticism. Some of the criticism is fair, and I’ll get to some of that in a bit, but others appear to be based on common myths about the Jamstack that persist, which is what I want to address first. So let’s look at five common myths about Jamstack I’ve encountered and debunk them. As with many myths, they are often based on a kernel of truth but lead to invalid conclusions.

Myth 1: They are just rebranded static sites^tfw

Yes, as I covered previously, the term “Jamstack” was arguably a rebranding of what we previously called “static sites.” This was not a rebranding meant to mislead or sell you something that wasn’t fully formed — quite the opposite. The term “static site” had long since lost its ability to describe what people were building. The sites being built using static site generators (SSG) were frequently filled with all sorts of dynamic content and capabilities.

Static sites were seen as largely about blogs and documentation where the UI was primarily fixed. The extent of interaction was perhaps embedded comments and a contact form. Jamstack sites, on the other hand, have things like user authentication, dynamic content, ecommerce, user generated content.

A listing of sites built using Jamstack on

Want proof? Some well-known companies and sites built using the Jamstack include Smashing Magazine, Sphero, Postman, Prima, Impossible Foods and TriNet, just to name a few.

Myth 2: Jamstack sites are fragile

A Medium article with no byline: The issues with JAMStack: You might need a backend

Reading the dependency list for Smashing Magazine reads like the service equivalent of node_modules, including AlgoliaGoCommerceGoTrueGoTell and a variety of Netlify services to name a few. There is a huge amount of value in knowing what to outsource (and when), but it is amusing to note the complexity that has been introduced in an apparent attempt to ‘get back to basics’. This is to say nothing of the potential fragility in relying on so many disparate third-party services.

Yes, to achieve the dynamic capabilities that differentiate the Jamstack from static sites, Jamstack projects generally rely on a variety of services, both first- or third-party. Some have argued that this makes Jamstack sites particularly vulnerable for two reasons. The first, they say, is that if any one piece fails, the whole site functionality collapses. The second is that your infrastructure becomes too dependent on tools and services that you do not own.

Let’s tackle that first argument. The majority of a Jamstack site should be pre-rendered. This means that when a user visits the site, the page and most of its content is delivered as static assets from the CDN. This is what gives Jamstack much of its speed and security. Dynamic functionality — like shopping carts, authentication, user generated content and perhaps search — rely upon a combination of serverless functions and APIs to work.

Broadly speaking, the app will call a serverless function that serves as the back end to connect to the APIs. If, for example, our e-commerce functionality relies on Stripe’s APIs to work and Stripe is down, then, yes, our e-commerce functionality will not work. However, it’s important to note that the site won’t go down. It can handle the issue gracefully by informing the user of the issue. A server-rendered page that relies on the Stripe API for e-commerce would face the identical issue. Assuming the server-rendered page still calls the back end code for payment asynchronously, it would be no more or less fragile than the Jamstack version. On the other hand, if the server-rendering is actually dependent upon the API call, the user may be stuck waiting on a response or receive an error (a situation anyone who uses the web is very familiar with).

As for the second argument, it’s really hard to gauge the degree of dependence on third-parties for a Jamstack web app versus a server-rendered app. Many of today’s server-rendered applications still rely on APIs for a significant amount of functionality because it allows for faster development, takes advantage of the specific area of expertise of the provider, can offload responsibility for legal and other compliance issues, and more. In these cases, once again, the server-rendered version would be no more or less dependent than the Jamstack version. Admittedly, if your app relies mostly on internal or homegrown solutions, then this may be different.

Myth 3: Editing content is difficult

Kev Quirk, on Why I Don’t Use A Static Site Generator:

Having to SSH into a Linux box, then editing a post on Vim just seems like a ridiculously high barrier for entry when it comes to writing on the go. The world is mobile first these days, like it or not, so writing on the go should be easy.

This issue feels like a relic of static sites past. To be clear, you do not need to SSH into a Linux box to edit your site content. There are a wide range of headless CMS options, from completely free and open source to commercial offerings that power content for large enterprises. They offer an array of editing capabilities that rival any traditional CMS (something I’ve talked about before). The point is, there is no reason to be manually editing Markdown, YAML or JSON files, even on your blog side project. Aren’t sure how to hook all these pieces up? We’ve got a solution for that too!

One legitimate criticism has been that the headless CMS and build process can cause a disconnect between the content being edited and the change on the site. It can be difficult to preview exactly what the impact of a change is on the live site until it is published or without some complex build previewing process. This is something that is being addressed by the ecosystem. Companies like Stackbit (who I work for) are building tools that make this process seamless.

Editing a site using Stackbit

We’re not the only ones working on solving this problem. Other solutions include TinaCMS and Gatsby Preview. I think we are close to it becoming commonplace to have the simplicity of WYSIWYG editing on a tool like Wix running on top of the Jamstack.

Myth 4: SEO is Hard on the Jamstack

Kym Ellis, on What the JAMstack means for marketing:

Ditching the concept of the plugin and opting for a JAMstack site which is “just HTML” doesn’t actually mean you have to give up functionality, or suddenly need to know how to code like a front-end developer to manage a site and its content.

I haven’t seen this one pop up as often in recent years and I think it is mostly legacy criticism of the static site days, where managing SEO-related metadata involved manually editing YAML-based frontmatter. The concern was that doing SEO properly became cumbersome and hard to maintain, particularly if you wanted to inject different metadata for each unique page that was generated or to create structured data like JSON-LD, which can be critical for enhancing your search listing.

The advances in content management for the Jamstack have generally addressed the complexity of maintaining SEO metadata. In addition, because pages are pre-rendered, adding sitemaps and JSON-LD is relatively simple, provided the metadata required exists. While pre-rendering makes it easy to create the resources search engines (read: Google) need to index a site, they also, combined with CDNs, making it easier to achieve the performance benchmarks necessary to improve a site’s ranking.

Basically, Jamstack excels at “technical SEO” while also providing the tools necessary for content editors to supply the keyword and other metadata they require. For a more comprehensive look at Jamstack and SEO, I highly recommend checking out the Jamstack SEO Guide from Bejamas.

Myth 5: Jamstack requires heavy JavaScript frameworks

If you’re trying to sell plain ol’ websites to management who are obsessed with flavour-of-the-month frameworks, a slick website promoting the benefits of “JAMstack” is a really useful thing.

– jdietrich, Hacker News

Lately, it feels as if Jamstack has become synonymous with front-end JavaScript frameworks. It’s true that a lot of the most well-known solutions do depend on a front-end framework, including Gatsby (React), Next.js (React), Nuxt (Vue), VuePress (Vue), Gridsome (Vue) and Scully (Angular). This seems to be compounded by confusion around the “J” in Jamstack. While it stands for JavaScript, this does not mean that Jamstack solutions are all JavaScript-based, nor do they all require npm or JavaScript frameworks.

In fact, many of the most widely used tools are not built in JavaScript, notably Hugo (Go), Jekyll (Ruby), Pelican (Python) and the recently released Bridgetown (Ruby). Meanwhile, tools like Eleventy are built using JavaScript but do not depend on a JavaScript framework. None of these tools prevent the use of a JavaScript framework, but they do not require it.

The point here isn’t to dump on JavaScript frameworks or the tools that use them. These are great tools, used successfully by many developers. JavaScript frameworks can be very powerful tools capable of simplifying some very complex tasks. The point here is simply that the idea that a JavaScript framework is required to use the Jamstack is false — Jamstack comes in 460 flavors!

Where we can improve

So that’s it, right? Jamstack is an ideal world of web development where everything isn’t just perfect, but perfectly easy. Unfortunately, no. There are plenty of legitimate criticisms of Jamstack.


Sebastian De Deyne, with Thoughts (and doubts) after messing around with the JAMstack:

In my experience, the JAMstack (JavaScript, APIs, and Markup) is great until is isn’t. When the day comes that I need to add something dynamic–and that day always comes–I start scratching my head.

Let’s be honest: Getting started with the Jamstack isn’t easy. Sure, diving into building a blog or a simple site using a static site generator may not be terribly difficult. But try building a real site with anything dynamic and things start to get complicated fast.

You are generally presented with a myriad of options for completing the task, making it tough to weigh the pros and cons. One of the best things about Jamstack is that it is not prescriptive, but that can make it seem unapproachable, leaving people with the impression that perhaps it isn’t suited for complex tasks.

Tying services together

Agreed. In yesterday's web you could grab an instrument and begin playing. Today's web development feels like a conductor trying to pull together a massive orchestra into a cohesive song – you have to understand each individual musician's part to have any chance of success.

— Brian Rinaldi (@remotesynth) May 1, 2020

When you actually get to the point of building those dynamic features, your site can wind up being dependent on an array of services and APIs. You may be calling a headless CMS for content, a serverless function that calls an API for payment transactions, a service like Algolia for search, and so on. Bringing all those pieces together can be a very complex task. Add to that the fact that each often comes with its own dashboard and API/SDK updates, things get even more complex.

This is why I think services like Stackbit and tools like RedwoodJS are important, as they bring together disparate pieces of the infrastructure behind a Jamstack site and make those easier to build and manage.

Overusing frameworks

In my opinion, our dependence on JavaScript frameworks for modern front-end development has been getting a much needed skeptical look lately. There are tradeoffs, as this post by Tim Kadlec recently laid out. As I said earlier, you don’t need a JavaScript framework to work in the Jamstack.

However, the impression was created both because so many Jamstack tools rely on JavaScript frameworks and also because much of the way we teach Jamstack has been centered on using frameworks. I understand the reasoning for this — many Jamstack developers are comfortable in JavaScript frameworks and there’s no way to teach every tool, so you pick the one you like. Still, I personally believe the success of Jamstack in the long run depends on its flexibility, which (despite what I said about the simplicity above) means we need to present the diversity of solutions it offers — both with and without JavaScript frameworks.

Where to go from here

Sheesh, you made it! I know I had a lot to say, perhaps more than I even realized when I started writing, so I won’t bore you with a long conclusion other than to say that, obviously, I have presented these myths from the perspective of someone who believes very deeply in the value of the Jamstack, despite it’s flaws!

If you are looking for a good post about when to and when not to choose Jamstack over server-side rendering, check out Chris Coyier’s recent post Static or Not?.

The post 5 Myths About Jamstack appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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